SFML and Xcode (Mac OS X)
This is the first tutorial you should read if you're using SFML with Xcode -- and more generally if you are developing applications for Mac OS X. It will show you how to install SFML, setup your IDE and compile a basic SFML program. But also, and more importantly, how to make your applications ready "out of the box" for the end users.
Several links are given in this document. There are mostly here for the curious ones among the readers; you don't need to read them all to follow this tutorial.
All you need to create an SFML-based application is:
- an Intel Mac with Leopard or later
- and Xcode (preferably the fourth version of the IDE which is available on the App Store)
With recent versions of Xcode you also need to install the Command Line Tools from Xcode > Preferences > Downloads > Components.
Binaries: dylib vs framework
SFML is available in two formats on Mac OS X. You have the dylib libraries on one hand and the framework bundles on the other hand. Both of them are provided as universal binaries so they can be used on 32 bits or 64 bits Intel systems without any special consideration.
Dylib stands for dynamic library; this format is like .so libraries on Linux. You can find more details in this document. Frameworks are fundamentally the same as dylibs, except that they can encapsulate external resources. Here is the in-depth documentation.
There is only one slight difference between these two kinds of libraries that you should be aware of while developing SFML applications: if you build SFML yourself, you can get dylib in both release and debug formats. However, frameworks are only available in release format. In any case this won't be an issue when you release your application because you would rather use the release version of SFML. That's why the binaries for OS X available on the download page are only in release format.
SFML is provided with two templates for Xcode 4 which allow you to create very quickly and easily new application projects. These templates can create custom projects: you can select which modules your application requires, if you want to use SFML as dylib or as frameworks, which compiler you want to use and you can choose between creating an application bundle containing all its resources (making the installation process of your applications as easy as a simple drag-and-drop) or a classic binary. See below for more details.
Be aware that these templates are not compatible with Xcode 3. If you are still using this version of the IDE and you are not considering updating your tool, then you can still, of course, create SFML-based applications, however, we will not discuss here how you can do that. Please refer to Apple's documentation about Xcode 3 and how to add a library to your project.
Apple ships a custom version of clang and libc++ with Xcode 4 that support part of the C++11 standard (i.e. new features are not yet all implemented). If you plan to use C++11's new functionalities, you need to configure your project to use clang and libc++. Also, make sure to download the right version (more details follow).
First of all you will need to download the SFML SDK which is available on the download page.
If you want to target Mac OS X Leopard (10.5) you have to download the "GCC" version. Keep in mind that this version is not compatible with C++11 features. If you want to use those features you need the "Clang" version, which is compatible with Mountain Lion (10.8) and later.
In order to start developing SFML applications, you have to install the following items:
Header files and libraries
As stated at the beginning of this document, SFML is available either as dylibs or as frameworks. We recommend using the frameworks but both can be installed on one system.
Copy the content of lib to /usr/local/lib and copy the content of include to /usr/local/include.
Copy the content of Frameworks to /Library/Frameworks.
SFML needs only two external libraries on Mac OS X. Copy sndfile.framework and freetype.framework from extlibs to /Library/Frameworks.
Xcode 4 templates
This feature is optional but we strongly recommend you to install it. Copy the SFML directory from templates to /Library/Developer/Xcode/Templates (if needed, create the folder arborescence).
SFML is shipped with an install.sh script that will install everything for you.
It will also make sure that previous versions of SFML, especially frameworks, are not removed from your system so that your applications can still be executed without modifications.
You just need to open a terminal in the directory of the downloaded SDK and run
The script will then prompt for your password and install everything in the right place.
We provide two templates for Xcode. SFML CLT generates a project for a classic terminal app whereas SFML App creates a project for an application bundle. We will use the latter here but they both work relatively similarly.
First select File > New Project... then choose SFML in the left column and double-click on SFML App.
Now you can fill in the required fields like in this screenshot; then press next.
Your new project is now set to create an application bundle ".app".
A few words about the templates settings. If you choose an incompatible option for C++ Compiler and Standard Library you will end up with linker errors. Make sure you follow this guideline:
- If you downloaded the "GCC" version from the download page, you should select C++98 with GCC and libstdc++ and target 10.5.
- If you downloaded the "Clang" version from the download page, you should select C++11 with Clang and libc++.
- If you compiled SFML yourself, you should be able to figure out which option you should use. ;-)
Now that your project is ready, let's see what is inside:
As you can see, there are already a few files in the project. There are three important kinds:
Header & source files: the project comes with a basic example in main.cpp and a helper function:
std::string resourcePath(void);in ResourcePath.hpp and ResourcePath.mm. The usefulness of this function, as illustrated in the provided example, is to get in a convenient way access to the Resources folder of your application bundle.
Please note that this function works only on Mac OS X. If you are planning to make your application work on another OS, you should make another implementation of this function for this OS.
Resource files: the resources of the basic example are put in this folder and are automatically copied to your application bundle when you compile it.
To add new resources to your project, simply drag'n'drop them to this folder and make sure that they are member of your application target; i.e. the box under Target Membership in the utility area (cmd+alt+1) should be checked.
- Product: here is your application. Simply press the Run button to test it.
The other files of the project are not very relevant for us here. However, please note that the SFML dependencies of your project are added to your application bundle, in a similar way than the resources are copied, so that it will run out of the box on another Mac without any prior installation of SFML or its dependencies.